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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    FROGFISH, n.

    1. An animal of surinam, which is said to change from a fish to a frog and then to a fish again. It is cartilaginous, and exquisite food.NWAD FROGFISH.2

    2. The Lophius, or fishing frog.NWAD FROGFISH.3

    FROGGRASS, n. A plant.

    FROGGY, a. Having frogs.

    FROISE, n. A kind of food made by frying bacon inclosed in a pancake.

    FROLICK, a.

    Gay; merry; full of levity; dancing, playing or frisking about; full of pranks.NWAD FROLICK.2

    The frolick wind that breathes the spring.NWAD FROLICK.3

    The gay, the frolick, and the loud.NWAD FROLICK.4

    [This adjective is seldom used except in poetry. As a noun and a verb, its use is common.]NWAD FROLICK.5

    FROLICK, n.

    1. A wild prank; a flight of levity, or gaiety and mirth.NWAD FROLICK.7

    He would be at his frolick once again.NWAD FROLICK.8

    2. A scene of gaiety and mirth, as in dancing or play. [This is a popular use of the word in America.]NWAD FROLICK.9

    FROLICK, v.i. To play wild pranks; to play tricks of levity, mirth and gaiety.

    The buzzing insects frolick in the air.NWAD FROLICK.11

    FROLICKLY, adv. With mirth and gaiety. Obs.

    FROLICKSOME, a. Full of gaiety and mirth; given to pranks.

    FROLICKSOMENESS, n. Gaiety; wild pranks.

    FROM, prep.

    The sense of from may be expressed by the noun distance, or by the adjective distant, or by the participles, departing, removing to a distance. Thus it is one hundred miles from Boston to Hartford. He took his sword from his side. Light proceeds from the sun. Water issues from the earth in springs. Separate the coarse wool from the fine. Men have all sprung from Adam. Men often go from good to bad, and from bad to worse. The merit of an action depends on the principle from which it proceeds. Men judge of facts from personal knowledge, or from testimony. We should aim to judge from undeniable premises.NWAD FROM.2

    The sense of from is literal or figurative, but it is uniformly the same.NWAD FROM.3

    In certain phrases, generally or always elliptical, from is followed by certain adverbs, denoting place, region or position, indefinitely, no precise point being expressed; as,NWAD FROM.4

    From above, from the upper regions.NWAD FROM.5

    From afar, from a distance.NWAD FROM.6

    From beneath, from a place or region below.NWAD FROM.7

    From below, from a lower place.NWAD FROM.8

    From behind, from a place or position in the rear.NWAD FROM.9

    From far, from a distant place.NWAD FROM.10

    From high, from on high, from a high place, from an upper region, or from heaven.NWAD FROM.11

    From hence, from this place; but from is superfluous before hence. The phrase however is common.NWAD FROM.12

    From thence, from that place; from being superfluous.NWAD FROM.13

    From whence, from which place; from being superfluous.NWAD FROM.14

    From where, from which place.NWAD FROM.15

    From within, from the interior or inside.NWAD FROM.16

    From without, from the outside, from abroad.NWAD FROM.17

    From precedes another preposition, followed by its proper object or case.NWAD FROM.18

    From amidst, as from amidst the waves.NWAD FROM.19

    From among, as from among the trees.NWAD FROM.20

    From beneath, as from beneath my head.NWAD FROM.21

    From beyond, as from beyond the river.NWAD FROM.22

    From forth, as from forth his bridal bower. But this is an inverted order of the words; forth from his bower.NWAD FROM.23

    From off, as from off the mercy seat, that is, from the top or surface.NWAD FROM.24

    From out, as from out a window, that is, through an opening or from the inside.NWAD FROM.25

    From out of, is an ill combination of words and not to be used.NWAD FROM.26

    From under, as from under the bed, from under the ashes, that is, from beneath or the lower side.NWAD FROM.27

    From within, as from within the house, that is, from the inner part or interior.NWAD FROM.28

    FROMWARD, adv. Away from; the contrary of toward.

    FROND, n. [L. frons, frondis. the sense is a shoot or shooting forward, as in frons, frontis.]

    In botany, a term which Linne applies to the peculiar leafing of palms and ferns. He defines it, a kind of stem which has the branch united with the leaf and frequently with the fructification. The term seems to import the union of a leaf and a branch.NWAD FROND.2

    FRONDATION, n. A lopping of trees.

    FRONDESCENCE, n. [L. frondesco, from frons.]

    In botany, the precise time of the year and month in which each species of plants unfolds its leaves.NWAD FRONDESCENCE.2

    FRONDIFEROUS, a. [L. frons, and fero, to bear.] Producing fronds.

    FRONDOUS, a. A frondous flower is one which is leafy, one which produces branches charged with both leaves and flowers. Instances of this luxuriance sometimes occur in the rose and anemone.

    FRONT, n. [L. frons, frontis; Gr. the nose.]

    1. Properly, the forehead, or part of the face above the eyes; hence, the whole face.NWAD FRONT.2

    His front yet threatens, and his frowns command.NWAD FRONT.3

    2. The forehead or face, as expressive of the temper or disposition; as a fold front, equivalent to boldness or impudence. So a hardened front is shamelessness.NWAD FRONT.4

    3. The forepart of any thing; as the front of a house, the principal face or side.NWAD FRONT.5

    4. The forepart or van of an army or a body of troops.NWAD FRONT.6

    5. The part or place before the face, or opposed to it, or to the forepart of a thing. He stood in front of his troops. The road passes in front of his house.NWAD FRONT.7

    6. The most conspicuous part or particular.NWAD FRONT.8

    7. Impudence; as men of front.NWAD FRONT.9

    FRONT, v.t.

    1. To oppose face to face; to oppose directly.NWAD FRONT.11

    I shall front thee, like some staring ghost, with all my wrongs about me.NWAD FRONT.12

    2. To stand opposed or opposite, or over against any thing; as, his house fronts the church.NWAD FRONT.13

    FRONT, v.i.

    1. To stand foremost.NWAD FRONT.15

    2. To have the face or front towards any point of compass.NWAD FRONT.16

    FRONTAL, n. [L. frontale., frons.]

    1. In medicine, a medicament or preparation to be applied to the forehead.NWAD FRONTAL.2

    2. In architecture, a little pediment or frontpiece, over a small door or window.NWAD FRONTAL.3

    3. In Jewish ceremonies, a frontlet or browband, consisting of four pieces of vellum, laid on leather, and tied round the forehead in the synagogue; each piece containing some text of scripture.NWAD FRONTAL.4

    FRONTBOX, n. The box in a playhouse before the rest.

    FRONTED, a. Formed with a front.

    FRONTIER, n.

    The marches; the border, confine, or extreme part of a country, bordering on another country; that is, the part furthest advanced, or the part that fronts an enemy, or which an invading enemy meets in front, or which fronts another country.NWAD FRONTIER.2

    FRONTIER, a. Lying on the exterior part; bordering; conterminous; as a frontier town.

    FRONTIERED, a. Guarded on the frontiers.

    FRONTINAC, FRONTINIAC, n. A species of French wine, named from the place in Languedoc where it is produced.

    FRONTISPIECE, n. [L. frontispicium; frons and specio, to view.]

    1. In architecture, the principal face of a building; the face that directly presents itself to the eye.NWAD FRONTISPIECE.2

    2. An ornamental figure or engraving fronting the first page of a book, or at the beginning.NWAD FRONTISPIECE.3

    FRONTLESS, a. Wanting shame or modesty; not diffident; as frontless vice; frontless flattery.

    FRONTLET, n. [from front.] A frontal or browband; a fillet or band worn on the forehead. Deuteronomy 6:8.

    FRONTROOM, n. a room or apartment in the forepart of a house.

    FROPPISH, a. Peevish; froward. [Not in use.]

    FRORE, a. Frozen

    FRORNE, a. Frozen

    FRORY, a.

    1. Frozen.NWAD FRORY.2

    2. Covered with a froth resembling hoarfrost. [Not in use.]NWAD FRORY.3

    FROST, n.

    1. A fluid congealed by cold into ice or crystals; as hoar-frost, which is dew or vapor congealed.NWAD FROST.2

    He scattereth the hoar-frost like ashes. Psalm 147:16.NWAD FROST.3

    2. The act of freezing; congelation of fluids.NWAD FROST.4

    The third day comes a frost, a killing frost.NWAD FROST.5

    3. In physiology, that state or temperature of the air which occasions freezing or the coagelation of water.NWAD FROST.6

    4. The appearance of plants sparkling with icy crystals.NWAD FROST.7

    FROST, v.t.

    1. In cookery, to cover or sprinkle with a composition of sugar, resembling hoar-frost; as, to frost cake.NWAD FROST.9

    2. To cover with any thing resembling hoarfrost.NWAD FROST.10

    FROSTBITTEN, a. Nipped, withered or affected by frost.

    FROSTED, pp.

    1. Covered with a composition like white frost.NWAD FROSTED.2

    2. a. Having hair changed to a gray or white color, as if covered with hoar-frost; as a head frosted by age.NWAD FROSTED.3

    FROSTILY, adv.

    1. With frost or excessive cold.NWAD FROSTILY.2

    2. Without warmth of affection; coldly.NWAD FROSTILY.3

    FROSTINESS, n. The state or quality of being frosty; freezing cold.

    FROSTING, ppr. covering with something resembling hoar-frost.

    FROSTING, n. the composition resembling hoar-frost, used to cover cake, etc.

    FROSTLESS, a. Free from frost; as a frostless winter.

    FROSTNAIL, n. a nail driven into a horse-shoe, to prevent the horse from slipping on ice. In some of the United States, the ends of the shoe are pointed for this purpose, and these points are called calks.

    FROSTWORK, n. Work resembling hoar-frost on shrubs.

    FROSTY, a.

    1. Producing frost; having power to congeal water; as a frosty night; frosty weather.NWAD FROSTY.2

    2. Containing frost; as, the grass is frosty.NWAD FROSTY.3

    3. Chill in affection; without warmth of affection or courage.NWAD FROSTY.4

    4. Resembling hoar-frost; white gray-haired; as a frosty head.NWAD FROSTY.5

    FROTH, n. frauth. [Gr.]

    1. Spume; foam; the bubbles causes in liquors by fermentation or agitation.NWAD FROTH.2

    2. Any empty, senseless show of wit or eloquence.NWAD FROTH.3

    3. Light, unsubstantial matter.NWAD FROTH.4

    FROTH, v.t. To cause to foam.

    FROTH, v.i. To foam; to throw up spume; to throw out foam or bubbles. Beer froths in fermentation. The sea froths when violently agitated. A horse froths at the mouth when heated.

    FROTHILY, adv.

    1. With foam or spume.NWAD FROTHILY.2

    2. In an empty trifling manner.NWAD FROTHILY.3

    FROTHINESS, n. The state of being frothy; emptiness; senseless matter.

    FROTHY, a.

    1. Full of foam or froth, or consisting of froth or light bubbles.NWAD FROTHY.2

    2. Soft; not firm or solid.NWAD FROTHY.3

    3. Vain; light; empty; unsubstantial; as a vain frothy speaker; a frothy harangue.NWAD FROTHY.4

    FROUNCE, n. A distemper of hawks, in which white spittle gathers about the bill. [See the Verb.]

    FROUNCE, v.t.

    To curl or frizzle the hair about the face.NWAD FROUNCE.3

    Not tricked and frounced as she was wont.NWAD FROUNCE.4

    FROUNCE, n. A wrinkle, plait or curl; an ornament of dress.

    FROUNCED, pp. Curled; frizzled.

    FROUNCELESS, a. Having no plait or wrinkle.

    FROUNCING, ppr. Curling; crisping.

    FROUZY, a. Fetid; musty; rank; dim; cloudy.

    FROW, n. A woman. [Not used.]

    FROWARD, a. [L. versus: turned or looking from.]

    Perverse, that is, turning from, with aversion or reluctance; not willing to yield or comply with what is required; unyielding; ungovernable; refractory; disobedient; peevish; as a froward child.NWAD FROWARD.2

    They are a very froward generation, children in whom is no fair. Deuteronomy 32:20.NWAD FROWARD.3

    FROWARDLY, adv. Perversely; in a peevish manner.

    FROWARDNESS, n. Perverseness; reluctance to yield or comply; disobedience; peevishness.

    FROWER, n. A sharp edged tool to cleave laths.

    FROWN, v.i.

    1. To express displeasure by contracting the brow, and looking grim or surly; to look stern; followed by on or at; as, to frown on a profligate man, or to frown at his vices.NWAD FROWN.2

    Heroes in animated marble frown.NWAD FROWN.3

    2. To manifest, displeasure in any manner. When providence frowns on our labors, let us be humble and submissive.NWAD FROWN.4

    3. To lower; to look threatening.NWAD FROWN.5

    FROWN, v.t. To repel by expressing displeasure; to rebuke. Frown the impudent fellow into silence.

    FROWN, n.

    1. A wrinkled look, particularly expressing dislike; a sour, severe or stern look, expressive of displeasure.NWAD FROWN.8

    His front yet threatens and his frowns command.NWAD FROWN.9

    2. Any expression of displeasure; as the frowns of providence; the frown of fortune.NWAD FROWN.10

    FROWNING, ppr. Knitting the brow in anger or displeasure; expressing displeasure by a surly, stern or angry look; lowering; threatening.

    FROWNINGLY, adv. Sternly; with a look of displeasure.

    FROWY, a. [The same as frouzy; perhaps a contracted word.] Musty; rancid; rank; as frowy butter.

    FROZEN, pp. of freeze.

    1. Congealed by cold.NWAD FROZEN.2

    2. Cold; frosty; chill; as the frozen climates of the north.NWAD FROZEN.3

    3. Chill or cold in affection.NWAD FROZEN.4

    4. Void of natural heat or vigor.NWAD FROZEN.5

    F.R.S. Fellow of the Royal Society.

    FRUBISH, for furbish, is not used.

    FRUCTED, a. [L. fructus, fruit.] In heraldry, bearing fruit.

    FRUCTESCENCE, n. [from L. fructus, fruit. See Fruit.]

    In botany, the precise time when the fruit of a plant arrives at maturity, and its seeds are dispersed; the fruiting season.NWAD FRUCTESCENCE.2

    FRUCTIFEROUS, a. [L. fructus, fruit, and fero, to bear.] Bearing or producing fruit.

    FRUCTIFICATION, n. [See Fructify.]

    1. The act of fructifying, or rendering productive of fruit; fecundation.NWAD FRUCTIFICATION.2

    2. In botany, the temporary part of a plant appropriated to generation, terminating the old vegetable and beginning the new. It consists of seven parts, the calyx, impalement or flower-cup, the corol or petals, the stamens, and the pistil, which belong to the flower, the pericarp and seed, which pertain to the fruit, and the receptacle or base, on which the other parts are seated. The receptacle belongs both to the flower and fruit.NWAD FRUCTIFICATION.3

    FRUCTIFY, v.t. [Low L. fructifico.]

    To make fruitful; to render productive; to fertilize; as, to fructify the earth.NWAD FRUCTIFY.2

    FRUCTIFY, v.i. To bear fruit. [Unusual.]

    FRUCTUATION, n. Produce; fruit. [Not used.]

    FRUCTUOUS, a. Fruitful; fertile; also, impregnating with fertility.

    FRUCTURE, n. Use; fruition; enjoyment. [Not used.]

    FRUGAL, a. [L. frugalis. See Fruit.]

    Economical in the use or appropriation of money, goods or provisions of any kind; saving unnecessary expense, either of money or of any thing else which is to be used or consumed; sparing; not profuse, prodigal or lavish. We ought to be frugal not only in the expenditure of money and of goods, but in the employment of time. It is followed by of, before the thing saved; as frugal of time. It is not synonymous with parsimonious, nor with thrifty, as now used.NWAD FRUGAL.2


    1. Prudent economy; good husbandry or housewifery; a sparing use or appropriation of money or commodities; a judicious use of any thing to be expended or employed; that careful management of money or goods which expends nothing unnecessarily, and applies what is used to a profitable purpose; that use in which nothing is wasted. It is not equivalent to parsimony, the latter being an excess of frugality, and a fault. Frugality is always a virtue. Nor is it synonymous with thrift, in its proper sense; for thrift is the effect of frugality.NWAD FRUGALITY.2

    Without frugality none can become rich, and with it few would be poor.NWAD FRUGALITY.3

    2. A prudent and sparing use or appropriation of any thing; as frugality of praise.NWAD FRUGALITY.4

    FRUGALLY, adv. With economy; with good management; in a saving manner. He seldom lives frugally, that lives by chance.

    FRUGIFEROUS, a. [L. frugifer; fruges, corn and fero, to bear.] Producing fruit or corn.

    FRUGIVOROUS, a. [L. fruges, corn and voro, to eat.]

    Feeding on fruits, seeds or corn, as birds and other animals.NWAD FRUGIVOROUS.2

    FRUIT, n. [L. fructus. The Latin word is the participle of fruor, contracted from frugor, or frucor, to use, to take the profit of.]

    1. In a general sense, whatever the earth produces for the nourishment of animals, or for clothing or profit. Among the fruits of the earth are included not only corn of all kinds, but grass, cotton, flax, grapes and all cultivated plants. In this comprehensive sense, the word is generally used in the plural.NWAD FRUIT.2

    2. In a more limited sense, the produce of a tree or other plant; the last production for the propagation or multiplication of its kind; the seed of plants, or the part that contains the seeds; as wheat, rye, oats, apples, quinces, pears, cherries, acorns, melons, etc.NWAD FRUIT.3

    3. In botany, the seed of a plant, or the seed with the pericarp.NWAD FRUIT.4

    4. Production; that which is produced.NWAD FRUIT.5

    The fruit of the spirit is in all goodness, and righteousness, and truth. Ephesians 5:9.NWAD FRUIT.6

    5. The produce of animals; offspring; young; as the fruit of the womb, of the loins, of the body.NWAD FRUIT.7

    6. Effect or consequence.NWAD FRUIT.8

    They shall eat the fruit of their doings. Isaiah 3:10.NWAD FRUIT.9

    7. Advantage; profit; good derived.NWAD FRUIT.10

    What fruit had ye then in those things whereof ye are now ashamed? Romans 6:21.NWAD FRUIT.11

    8. Production, effect or consequence; in an ill sense; as the fruits of sin; the fruits of intemperance.NWAD FRUIT.12

    FRUIT, v.i. To produce fruit. [Not well authorized.]

    FRUITAGE, n. Fruit collectively; various fruits.

    FRUITBEARER, n. That which produces fruit.

    FRUITBEARING, a. Producing fruit; having the quality of bearing fruit.

    FRUITERER, n. One who deals in fruit; a seller of fruits.

    FRUITERY, n.

    1. Fruit collectively taken.NWAD FRUITERY.2

    2. A fruitloft; a repository for fruit.NWAD FRUITERY.3

    FRUITFUL, a.

    1. Very productive; producing fruit in abundance; as fruitful soil; a fruitful tree; a fruitful season.NWAD FRUITFUL.2

    2. Prolific; bearing children; not barren.NWAD FRUITFUL.3

    Be fruitful, and multiply - Genesis 1:22, 28.NWAD FRUITFUL.4

    3. Plenteous; abounding in any thing.NWAD FRUITFUL.5

    4. Productive of any thing; fertile; as fruitful in expedients.NWAD FRUITFUL.6

    5. Producing in abundance; generating; as fruitful in crimes.NWAD FRUITFUL.7

    FRUITFULLY, adv.

    1. In such a manner as to be prolific.NWAD FRUITFULLY.2

    2. Plenteously; abundantly.NWAD FRUITFULLY.3


    1. The quality of producing fruit in abundance; productiveness; fertility; as the fruitfulness of land.NWAD FRUITFULNESS.2

    2. Fecundity; the quality of being prolific, or producing many young; applied to animals.NWAD FRUITFULNESS.3

    3. Productiveness of the intellect; as the fruitfulness of the brain.NWAD FRUITFULNESS.4

    4. Exuberant abundance.NWAD FRUITFULNESS.5

    FRUIT-GROVE, n. A grove or close plantation of fruit trees.

    FRUITION, n. [from L. fruor, to use or enjoy.]

    Use accompanied with pleasure, corporeal or intellectual; enjoyment; the pleasure derived from use or possession.NWAD FRUITION.2

    If the affliction is on his body, his appetites are weakened, and capacity of fruition destroyed.NWAD FRUITION.3

    FRUITIVE, a. Enjoying.


    1. Not bearing fruit; barren; destitute of fruit; as a fruitless plant.NWAD FRUITLESS.2

    2. Productive of no advantage or good effect; vain; idle; useless; unprofitable; as a fruitless attempt; a fruitless controversy.NWAD FRUITLESS.3

    3. Having no offspring.NWAD FRUITLESS.4

    FRUITLESSLY, a. [from fruitless.] Without any valuable effect; idly; vainly; unprofitably.

    FRUITLESSNESS, n. The quality of being vain or unprofitable.

    FRUIT-LOFT, n. A place for the preservation of fruit.

    FRUIT-TIME, n. The time for gathering fruit.

    FRUIT-TREE, n. A tree cultivated for its fruit, or a tree whose principal value consists in the fruit it produces, as the cherry tree, apple tree, pear tree. The oak and beech produce valuable fruit, but the fruit is not their principal value.

    FRUMENTACEOUS, a. [L. frumentaceus.]

    1. Made of wheat, or like grain.NWAD FRUMENTACEOUS.2

    2. Resembling wheat, in respect to leaves, ears, fruit, and the like.NWAD FRUMENTACEOUS.3

    FRUMENTARIOUS, a. [L. frumentarius, from frumentum, corn.] Pertaining to wheat or grain.

    FRUMENTATION, n. [L. frumentatio.] Among the Romans, a largess of grain bestowed on the people to quiet them when uneasy or turbulent.

    FRUMENTY, n. [L. frumentum, wheat or grain.] Food made of wheat boiled in milk.

    FRUMP, n. A joke, jeer or flout. [Not used.]

    FRUMP, v.t. To insult. [Not in use.]

    FRUSH, v.t. To bruise; to crush. Obs.

    FRUSH, n. In farriery, a sort of tender horn that grows in the middle of the sole of a horse, at some distance from the toe, dividing into two branches, and running toward the heel in the form of a fork.

    FRUSTRABLE, a. [See Frustrate.] That may be frustrated or defeated.

    FRUSTRANEOUS, a. [See Frustrate.] Vain; useless; unprofitable. [Little used.]

    FRUSTRATE, v.t. [L. frustro.]

    1. Literally, to break or interrupt; hence, to defeat; to disappoint; to balk; to bring to nothing; as, to frustrate a plan, design or attempt; to frustrate the will or purpose.NWAD FRUSTRATE.2

    2. To disappoint; applied to persons.NWAD FRUSTRATE.3

    3. To make null; to nullify; to render of no effect; as, to frustrate a conveyance or deed.NWAD FRUSTRATE.4

    FRUSTRATE, part. a. Vain; ineffectual; useless; unprofitable; null; void; of no effect.

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